Transition Studies in Flowering Plants  

by Rolf Baumberger

Gene Regulation & Gene Editing - Diplacus

A) Gene regulation

Fig. 1: Summarized functionally categorized activity of enzymatic proteins and transcription factors in yellow and red flowers and buds in Diplacus.

 Fig. 2: Up- and down-regulated flavonoid pathway enzymes caused by the bHlH, WD40, MYB Transcription factor-group in red and yellow flowers in Diplacus.

 Fig.3: Whole flavonoid pathway in buds and flowers showing the enzymatic protein activities in red and yellow floral tissues in Diplacus.

Fig.4: Flower in transition from  the yellow towards the red state - Diplacus.

Fig. 5: Color-inducing MYB-factor activities in flower in transition compared to the activities of yellow and red flowers in Diplacus.

B) Gene editing

Fig.6: A portion of MYB transcription factors for the red plant, plant in transition and yellow plant individuals. It seems that by gene editing a yellow plant can acquire the so-called ear-motif to get from a non-functional a functional MYB status(igv).

For a perfect transition from a yellow flowered plant to a red flowered one, hundreds of gene regulation steps and a couple of gene editing steps are discovered to be needed. Nonetheless, a process of this kind takes place in Diplacus.

Without the uptake of external energy and matter, and without the proper molecular machinery working fully on physical laws, that is an impossibility. The result would be absurd, a fantasy.