Transition Studies in Flowering Plants  

by Rolf Baumberger

Pushmi-Pulyu-Hypothesis summaries A & B

Exchange of genetic information

If we want to retrieve the Mendelian laws in Diplacus, one assumes a red-blooming homozygous and a yellow-flowering homozygous form. The F1 generation is then clearly mixed and orange flowering (red arrowheads). The F2 generation splits as predicted after the crucial 1: 2: 1 ratio. Backcrossing of F1 with one or the other parent gives the 1: 1 ratio homozygous mixed. So, it is a previously stored information in the parent generation necessary (Mendelian inheritance).

The gain of genetic information


Something different is the case with plants in transition. Tested through self-pollination of these plants, one realizes that their allelicity is continuously changing (green arrowheads). It deviates temporarily from the Mendelian expectation. In the very end, however, the Mendelian conditions are restored. In between, epi-Mendelian hybrids are possible, which have their own rules. Epi-Mendelian heredity deals with plants in transition, and Mendelian heredity has stable forms as parental forms. The two processes complement each other and extend Mendel's laws. By definition, only epi-Mendelian heredity brings about evolution. 

The term «evolvere» means to emerge or change through an evolutionary process. It turns out that the red morph, Diplacus puniceus is the end product of a transformation process from the yellow flowering Morph Diplacus australis.

Some adjustments are therefore required. Yellow australis needs to be manipulated into four alleles, 400 gene regulatory processes, and 4,000 methylation adjustments to get there.
The condition must be favorable for this process, and the probability of a sudden transformation must be high.
There is currently no theory to support this process, and current theories are outdated.

That is why we propose the following PP-hypothesis.

What is required?

• A dissipative system that can devalue energy.

• A metabolism that proliferates a sufficient energy input. 

• Hardly error-prone DNA information store that can be copied and overwritten.

• Somatic cell tissue that develops differential genomic information. This requires a master regulator - a network of regulators - Which, if necessary, regulate to new «shores.» 

• Hundreds of gene regulation steps and a couple of gene editing steps are therefore needed.

• A gradual change of environmental influences.

What is achieved?

• In the event of a transition, genomic information from somatic cell tissue will increasingly deviate from its previous information as the individual changes. 

• The morphological and genetic state of each tissue is coupled. In other words, when the flower shape of a transitive flower changes, its ancestral genomics has also changed in a similar direction in the floral tissue.

• This change is continually repeated in flower tissues of a transitive plant  over the years. Only their amplitudes get smaller over time. At the same time, the shape of the flower approaches a new stable state, and so does the genome.

• When this point has been reached after 15 to 20 years or so in e.g. Diplacus, one can no longer find any morphological or genetic differences between the tissues in young compared to old flowers of a plant. - It is assumed that at this endpoint (attractor point) a relative energy minimum is achieved at the same time, which causes stability and minimal fluctuation.

• Only the new stable state is eventually realized both in the phenotype and in its genotype version. - A newly transitive developed and ultimately stable morph is a priori always adapted to place and time.


• Can be applied to all structures with metabolism (living systems) with or without the sexual cycle.


What do you have to pay attention to?
• Such systems must be observed for a minimum of 5 years, their data collected to describe their dynamic.
• One should be able to include not only morphological but also physiological, genetic and genomic data of a system in the analysis.


There is also a physical-theoretical aspect that has barely been discussed. It is true that the likelihood of a transition depends heavily on the environmental parameters. In other words, abiotic and biotic factors determine the degree and course of a transition. The whole thing has a particular dynamic. A transition occurs only when an old attractor subsides, and a new attractor arises or can be achieved with reasonable effort. So there is a whole spanning level of probability of evolution.
Evolution therefore always takes place sporadically and only in particular time windows, i.e., whenever something becomes realizable.

Living systems are prevented from falling apart. So they can not, like molecules, release energy to the environment, crystallize out and assume a geometric order structure. In this steady state, living systems still take on the lowest energy state possible, resulting in a dynamic order. This dynamic order is dependent on all environmental and biotic parameters. If these change to a certain extent - living systems are sluggish - the living systems are forced to change structurally. That brings about evolution.

The Pushmi-Pulyu-Hypothesis emphasizes the regulatory and exploratory properties of a morph under constraint or adaptative pressure. It also takes the probability aspect of the transition event.

Darwin's Fallacy