Transition Studies in Flowering Plants  

by Rolf Baumberger

023

S03 - Silene 

Another system we are currently investigating is that of Silene dioica - latifolia. We located the system in the Lower Engadine in the east of Switzerland. In 2007 the two forms were interpreted as hybrid forms at 1200 -1400 m of elevation (10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00330.x). In contrast to the current situation, where we now assume a transformation process at 1400-1700 m altitude. We will try to support this finding by observation over several years, starting in 2019. Silene dioica has magenta flowers. It occurs in meadows and light woods and is common in early summer. In complete contrast to the white form, which occurs sporadically on a south exposed, well-sunned steep shelves or hedgebanks, and along artificially layered natural stone walls. We suspect that the magenta flowered dioica can transform into the white bloomed latifolia in less than ten years. This system has all the same properties as the Diplacus system also has. We will publish more information on this system here at a later date.  


Silene dioica like plant showing slight attributes of a transition process (base of petioles and stems dark pigmented; white buds turning Lila later on, no real color constancy during anthesis.)




One can observe in the rare instance on the same plant that the color tones of its flowers develops during anthesis from pale Lila to lighter and darker status at the well-developed bloom.




 

In Val Sinestra at 1640 m of altitude one may see currently (2019) red bloom-ing dioica plants and latifolia like plants that have almost black striped calyces and almost black colored petioles. Hard to interpret this as being the offspring of the hybrid and successive backcross line from the two species. It looks more like a quick transition step, where anthocyanin is pilled up in any plant tissue except the corolla to ensure real white petals. It will be informative to follow the suite of this process. The plant parts should become much less pigmented following the timeline (46.845192 N, 10.35654 E). Such a "contact site" of the two species could not be reported over 1500 m of elevation some 13 years ago in the study of 2006 see: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00330.x



Silene latifolia a moth-pollinated white flowered species



The transition line 2019 (light blue), in which mixed flower forms are present, lies 2019 200 m (Lavin) to 500 m (Tschlin) above the line 2007 (striped light green). The white-flowered Silene latifolia is becoming increasingly important in the dry, sunny, and steep terrace edges of this landscape, which are very south-facing. As far as the underlying mechanisms are concerned, we are already keeping an eye on them. Any Darwinian interpretation does not explain what is going on here.

 Any further interpretation will follow later on. r.b. 08-13-19